Roles of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development MBA Notes, Entrepreneurship has been identified by many economists as an important force in the process of industrialization in particular and economic development in general. Economic development essentially means a change. but at the same time, it is very difficult to define precise economic development. should be realized that the term economic development does not express the idea of the total development of society. It focuses on only one aspect. And a dimension of general development. Economic development can be defined as a step towards even more efficient and differentiated ways of supplying people with requirements for survival and improvement. 10 Roles of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development MBA Notes [That Effective]
The entrepreneur is the key to the creation of new enterprises. Activate the economy and rejuvenate established enterprises that make up the economic structure. Entrepreneurs initiate and sustain the process of economic development in the following 10 ways:
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1. Capital formation:
Entrepreneurs mobilize the idle savings of the public through the issues of industrial securities. Investment of public savings in industry results in productive utilization of national resources. Rate of capital formation increases which is essential for rapid economic growth. Thus, an entrepreneur is the creator of wealth.
2. Improvement in per capita income:
Entrepreneurs explore opportunities and exploit them. They convert talent and idle resources like land, labor, and capital into national income and wealth as goods and services. They help increase the net national product and per capita income in the country, which are important indicators for measuring economic growth.
3. Improvement in living standards:
Entrepreneurs set up industries that overcome the scarcity of essential commodities and introduce new products. The production of goods on a large scale and the manufacture of handicrafts, etc., help in improving the standard of living of a common man in the small scale sector. Offer goods at these low costs and increase consumption diversity.
4. Economic independence:
Entrepreneurship is essential for national self-reliance. Industrialists help to manufacture indigenous substitutes of hitherto imported products thereby reducing dependence on foreign countries. Businessmen also export goods and services on a large scale and thereby earn scarce foreign exchange for the country. Such import substitution and export promotion help to ensure the economic independence of the country without which political independence has little meaning.
5. Backward and forward links:
An entrepreneur initiates change in which there is a chain reaction. There are many backward and forward linkages in establishing an enterprise. For example, the setting up of a steel plant creates many ancillary units, and the demand for iron ore, coal, etc. expands. There are backward relationships. By increasing the supply of steel, the plant facilitates machine manufacturing, tube making, vessel manufacturing, and the development of other such units.
Entrepreneurs create an atmosphere of enthusiasm and express a sense of purpose. They give an organization its momentum. Entrepreneurial behavior is critical to the long-term vitality of every economy. The practice of entrepreneurship is as important for established firms as it is for newcomers.
6. Generation of Employment:
At the beginning of the seventh five-year plan, the backlog of unemployment was estimated to be around 44 million persons. At present, the number of unemployed in the country is far greater than what it was during 1985. Emphasis on modernization which usually results in automation, use of high technology, and technology up-gradation initiated during the 1980s and structural changes introduced by the Government during the 1990s are likely to give much rise to capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive industry.
It is feared that there will be very few additional job opportunities within the fold of organized public and private sectors. Most of the job opportunities in the future are likely to be emerging from the informal and unorganized sectors of the economy. Entrepreneurship development training which helps in strengthening the informal and unorganized sector is expected to motivate enterprising people to opt for self-employment and entrepreneurial career. It will, therefore, help in solving the problem of increasing unemployment to some extent.
7. The exploitation of locally available resources and entrepreneurship:
India is considered rich in natural resources. Despite nearly five decades of planned development, a large number of states remain economically backward. Some large-scale industries started by out-of-state entrepreneurs in economically backward regions can help as a model of pioneering efforts. But ultimately the real strength of industrialization in backward areas depends on the involvement of local entrepreneurship. Activities: Increased activities of local entrepreneurs will also result in construction. Use of abundant available local resources.
8. Balanced Regional Development:
Medium and large-scale industries can only be started with a huge investment that is either available with well-established industrial houses or needs to be drawn from the exchequer. Also, promoting such industries does not help reduce inequalities of income and wealth. On the other hand, an important advantage of small scale industries is that they can be started with little financial and resources and little or no previous experience or entrepreneurial background.
9. Reducing Unrest and Social Tension Amongst Youth:
Many problems associated with youth unrest and social tension are rightly considered to be due to youth not being engaged in productive work. In the changing environment where we are faced with the problem of recession in wage employment opportunities, the alternative to a wage career is the only viable option. the country is required to invert the youth with latent entrepreneurial traits from wage careers to self-employment careers. Such an alternate path through entrepreneurship could help the country in defusing social tension and unrest amongst youth
10. Innovations in Enterprises:
Business enterprises need to be innovative for their survival and better performance. It is believed that smaller firms have a relatively higher necessity and capability to innovate. The smaller firms do not face the constraints imposed by a large investment in existing technology. Thus they are both free and compelled to innovate. The National Science Foundation, an organization in the USA found that small companies produce four times more innovations per research dollar than do bigger companies. Entrepreneurship development programs are aimed at accelerating the pace of the small firm’s growth in India. an increased number of small firms is expected to result in more innovations and make the Indian industry compete in the international market.
Business management expert and Leadership Consultant and Business Coach, who writes her blog, Jay’s Trends, focused on helping small business owners understand trends in Business management. Other posts by Jayprakash Prajapati»