Hello, Technical analysis of a project is necessary to ensure that the necessary physical facilities required for production will be available and the best possible option will be selected for their purchase.
The objective of technical analysis is to assess the technical soundness of the project. This is considered essential for the long-term success of the project. For this, we must look at the 9 ways given below. Get more information about it…
Table of Contents
What are the 9 types of technical analysis?
1. Plant Layout:
Proper plant layout can reduce manufacturing costs by saving money and time. It refers to the arrangement of the machines, types of equipment, and other physical facilities within the factory premises.
It is a floor plan for determining and arranging the desired machinery and equipment in the best place to permit the quickest flow of material at the lowest cost with the least amount of material handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw materials to shipment of the finished product. There are five types of plant layout, For this, we must look at the 5 ways given below.
- Cellular Layout: This is an innovative layout, and based on group technology principles. In this type machines dedicated to sequences of production are grouped into cells.
- Stationary Layout: The men and equipment are moved to the materials which remain in one place. The product is completed at that place where material lies. It is also called a fixed-position layout. It is necessary for shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturing, job welding shops, etc.
- Combined Layout: Here some of the machines may be arranged in product layout and some others in process layout. It combines the advantages of both the layout forms.
- Process Layout: This is also called a functional layout. In this type similar machines are placed in one place according to the operations or functions they perform.
- Product Layout: This is also called a line layout. In this type of machine and type of equipment are arranged in the sequence or order in which they are used in the manufacture of a given product-. It is best suited in mass production because it allows a continuous flow of material in the process towards the finished product stage.
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2. Machinery and equipment:
The requirement of machinery and equipment is dependent on production technology and plant capacity. It is also influenced by the type of project. To determine the kind of machinery and types of equipment required for the manufacturing industry the following procedure may be followed.
- Select types of machinery and types of equipment required for each function.
- Calculate the machinery hours required for each type of operation.
- Define the various machinery and other operations.
- Estimate the likely levels of production over time.
The types of equipment required for the project may be classified into the following types: For this, we must look at the given below.
- The internal transportation system.
- Plant types of equipment.
- Electrical types of equipment.
- Mechanical types of equipment.
3. Factory design:
This refers to the plan for a particular type of building, an arrangement of machinery and equipment and provision of service facilities, lighting, heating, etc. in the building. The factory design comprises the layout of the building and layout of the factory.
Importance of Factory Design
Important benefits of a good factory design are summarized as follows:
- Service facilities.
- Storage and movement of material.
- Employee morale.
Factors Affecting Factory Design
While designing a factory the following factors should be considered:
- Material handling.
- Plant layout.
- Smoothness in operation.
- Nature of the manufacturing process.
- Cost of construction of a building.
- Future expansion.
- Nature of product.
- Service facilities.
4. Product mix:
The product mix or range is decided according to market requirements. It refers to the set of all products offered by a firm for sale. The range of products to be marketed depends on the following:
- Plant capacity
- Nature of business.
- Tastes of consumers.
- Size of a target market.
- Nature of product.
5. Plant Size:
The efficiency and profitability of a project are very much influenced by its size. The size of the plant depends on the manufacturing process, availability of raw materials, the capital investment needed, and the size of the market. Size of the plant depends on:
- Project site.
- Market size.
- Size of plant and machinery.
- Product mix.
- Capital investment required.
- Availability of raw materials and electricity.
- The technology/ process will be adopted.
6. Plant Location:
This refers to a fairly broad area where the enterprise is to be established like a city, industrial zone, or coastal area. The success of a project depends on the location, to a certain extent. They are discussed as follows.
- Effluent disposal.
- Government policies.
- Proximity to raw material.
- Nearness to market.
- Climatic condition.
- Environmental considerations.
- Other factors.
- Availability of infrastructure facilities.
- Transport and communication facilities.
7. Plant Capacity:
This refers to the quantity or number of units that can be manufactured during a given period of time. The capacity of plants is also called production capacity.
The following factors should be taken into consideration.
- Investment cost.
- Market idea.
- Technical requirement.
- Resources of the firm.
- Government policy.
- Input interrupt.
8. Manufacturing Process / Technology:
Technologies simply refer to the tools, devices, and knowledge that help in the transformation of inputs into outputs. It is the application of knowledge, encompassing the related concepts of science, innovation, invention, and discovery. It is the application of scientific knowledge to practical commercial purposes.
The choice of technology is influenced by the following considerations:
- Investment outlay.
- Product mix.
- Latest developments.
- Plant capacity.
9. Material Inputs:
This is essential to assess the availability of materials, inputs, and utilities. Utilities include power, water, steam, fuel, communication facilities, transport facilities, etc. The feasibility study of material should include the following variables:
- Raw material failure time.
- Price elasticity of raw materials.
- The factors on which raw material availability depends.
- Quality and quantity availability of raw materials.
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